# Application Gallery

The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, mechanical, fluid, and chemical disciplines. You can download ready-to-use tutorial models and demo apps with step-by-step instructions for how to create them yourself. The examples in the gallery serve as a great starting point for your own simulation work.

Use the Quick Search to find tutorials and apps relevant to your area of expertise. Log in or create a COMSOL Access account that is associated with a valid COMSOL license to download the MPH-files.

### Radiative Cooling of a Glass Plate

When producing glass, the glass melt is cooled down through radiation to form the final shape, subjecting it to stresses. Numerical treatment of radiative heat transfer, using the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE), helps to optimize this process. COMSOL Multiphysics provides three discretization methods for modeling radiation in participating media and solving the RTE: the Rosseland ...

### Heat Conduction with a Localized Heat Source on a Disk

This classical verification model solves the steady state temperature distribution in a plan disk heated by a localized heat source at its center. It shows and compare different ways to define a heat source localized on a small domain by representing it either as a geometrical point or a small disk. Both modelings have analytical solutions to which the obtained numerical results can be ...

### Composite Thermal Barrier

This example shows how to set up multiple sandwiched thin layers with different thermal conductivities in two different ways. First, the composite is modeled as a 3D object. In the second approach the Thin thermally resistive layer boundary condition is used to avoid resolving the thin domains. The technique is useful when modeling heat transfer through thermal barriers like multilayer coatings.

### Radiative Heat Transfer in Finite Cylindrical Media—P1 Method

This model uses the Discrete-Ordinates method (DOM) to solve a 3D radiative transfer problem in an emitting, absorbing, and linear-anisotropic scattering finite cylindrical medium. Using the S6 quadrature of DOM leads to faster and more accurate results, which are needed in combined modes of heat transfer. The calculated incident radiation and heat fluxes agree well with published results ...

### Radiative Heat Transfer in a Utility Boiler

This model uses the discrete-ordinates method (DOM) to analyze the radiative heat transfer in a utility boiler with internal obstacles. DOM is one of the most useful radiation models for prediction of radiative heat fluxes on the furnace walls of a combustion chamber. With this model, the behavior of the temperature and heat flux within the furnace and on the heat surfaces can be easily obtained ...

### Marangoni Effect

Marangoni convection occurs when the surface tension of an interface (generally liquid-air) depends on the concentration of a species or on the temperature distribution. In the case of temperature dependence, the Marangoni effect is also called thermo-capillary convection. The Marangoni effect is of primary importance in the fields of welding, crystal growth and electron beam melting of ...

### Convective Cooling of a Potcore Inductor

The inductor is a common component in a variety of electrical devices. Its applications include power transformation and measurements, and it can also be used together with capacitors to create oscillators. In small devices with many components, such as in laptops, heat generation can be a problem and must be accounted for in the design. This axi-symmetric model studies the heat transfer in ...

### Thermophoresis

When a temperature gradient in a gas exists, suspended particles will tend to move from regions of high temperature to low. The force which produces this effect is called the thermophoretic force. Gas molecules colliding with a particle from the hot side have a higher velocity than the cold side, which results in a net force towards cold areas. This effect can be exploited to create thermal ...

### Temperature Field in a Cooling Flange

A cooling flange in a chemical process is used to cool the process fluid, which flows through the flange. The surrounding air cools the flange via natural convection. In the stationary model, the forced convection to the process fluid is modeled using a constant heat transfer coefficient. The natural convection cooling is modeled using tabulated empirical transfer coefficients that are ...

### Rapid Thermal Annealing

In the semiconductor industry, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is a semiconductor process step used for the activation of dopants and the interfacial reaction of metal contacts. In principle, the operation involves rapid heating of a wafer from ambient to approximately 1000–1500 K. As soon as the wafer reaches this temperature, it is held there for a few seconds and then finally quenched. An ...