This glossary contains application-specific terms used in the Chemical Reaction Engineering Module software and documentation. For mathematical terms as well as geometry and CAD terms specific to the COMSOL Multiphysics software, please see the Multiphysics Glossary.
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Uptake of a gas into the bulk of a liquid. Gas absorption takes place for example in the liquid of a scrubber tower where an up-streaming gas is washed by a down-going flow of a scrubber solution.
Attachment of a molecule or atom to a solid surface. Adsorption involves a chemical bond between the adsorbed species and the surface.
Variation of a transport property in different directions in a material. Is often obtained from homogenization of regular structures, for example, monolithic structures in tubular reactors.
Arrhenius rate equation
Expression that relates the rate constant of a chemical reaction to the exponential of the temperature.
Reactor characterized by its operation, which means that the reactor does reaches steady state.
Electrically conducting plate connected to the anode on one side and to the cathode on the other side in an electrochemical cell.
Extension of Darcy’s law in order to include the transport of momentum through shear in porous media flow.
Expression that relates the reaction rate of an electron transfer reaction on an electrode surface to the exponential of the overpotential. The equation can be derived from the Arrhenius rate equation by accounting for the contribution of the electric potential to the activation energy.
Region in a fluid close to a solid surface. This region is characterized by large gradients in velocity and is often treated with approximative methods, because it is difficult to geometrically resolve the large gradients found there.
Reactor that operates without interruption. This type of reactor is characterized by its steady-state operation.
Fictitious layer in a fluid close to a solid surface where a chemical reaction takes place. The flux of species perpendicular to the surface in this layer is dominated by diffusion.
Equation that gives the velocity vector as proportional to the pressure gradient. Often used to describe flow in porous media.
Condition that states that the sum of charges in a control volume in an electrolyte should be zero.
Migration of charged electrolyte ions in an electric field.
Onset of a flow due to the application of an external electric field or due to the formation of an electric field created by ion transport in membranes, for example.
Flow at high velocities, where incompressibility of the fluid is of importance whereas the influence of viscous momentum transport is negligible.
The first law relates the concentration gradients to the diffusive flux of a solute infinitely diluted in a solvent. The second law introduces the first law into a differential material balance for the solute.
fully developed laminar flow
Laminar flow along a channel or pipe that only has velocity components in the main direction of the flow. The velocity profile perpendicular to the flow does not change downstream in the flow.
See Poiseuille’s law.
Reaction that takes place at the interface between two phases.
Reaction that takes place in the bulk of a solution.
law of the wall
See wall function.
Set of equations that describe the diffusion of solutes and solvent in a concentrated solution. In such a solution, the solutes interact with each other and with the solvent.
Catalytic reactor made of one single piece of solid material. Incorporates a catalytic structure in its often porous structure.
Equations for the momentum balances coupled to the equation of continuity for a Newtonian incompressible fluid.
Equation that describes the flux of an ion through diffusion, convection, and migration in an electric field. The equation is valid for diluted electrolytes.
Flow characterized by a constant viscosity or a viscosity that is independent of the shear rate in the fluid.
Equation that relates the mass rate of flow in a tube as proportional to the pressure difference per unit length and to the fourth power of the tube radius. The law is valid for fully developed laminar flow.
specific surface area
Internal surface area of a porous structure given in area per unit volume, which yields the unit one over unit length. Often used to characterize the structure of porous catalysts.
A numerical technique for stabilization of the numeric solution to a convection-dominated PDE by artificially adding diffusion in the direction of the streamlines.
Semi-empirical expression for the anisotropic flow close to a solid surface used in turbulence models. Often based on negligible variations in pressure gradient in the direction tangential to the surface.