This glossary contains finite element modeling terms in an electromagnetic waves context. For mathematical terms as well as geometry and CAD terms specific to the COMSOL Multiphysics software, please see the Multiphysics Glossary.
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A boundary that lets an electromagnetic wave propagate through the boundary without reflections.
Variation of material properties with direction.
The relation between the D and E fields and between the B and H fields. These relations depend on the material properties.
The lowest frequency for which a given mode can propagate through, for example, a waveguide or optical fiber.
See vector element.
A possible propagating mode of, for example, a waveguide or optical fiber.
Two equal and opposite charges +q and −q separated a short distance d. The electric dipole moment is given by p = qd, where d is a vector going from −q to +q.
A variable transformation of the electric and magnetic potentials that leaves Maxwell’s equations invariant.
A small circular loop carrying a current. The magnetic dipole moment is m = IAe, where I is the current carried by the loop, A its area, and e a unit vector along the central axis of the loop.
Nedelec’s edge element
See vector element.
perfect electric conductor
A material with high electric conductivity, modeled as a boundary where the electric field is zero.
perfect magnetic conductor
A material with high permeability, modeled as a boundary where the magnetic field is zero.
A complex function of space representing a sinusoidally varying quantity.
The electromagnetic fields are assumed to vary slowly, so that the retardation effects can be neglected. This approximation is valid when the geometry under study is considerably smaller than the wavelength.
A finite element often used for electromagnetic vector fields. The tangential component of the vector field at the mesh edges is used as a degree of freedom. Also called Nedelec’s edge element or just edge element.