# Application Gallery

The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, mechanical, fluid, and chemical disciplines. You can download ready-to-use tutorial models and demo apps with step-by-step instructions for how to create them yourself. The examples in the gallery serve as a great starting point for your own simulation work.
Use the Quick Search to find tutorials and apps relevant to your area of expertise. Log in or create a COMSOL Access account that is associated with a valid COMSOL license to download the MPH-files.

### Heat Generation in a Disc Brake

This example models the transient heating, and final temperature, of a disc brake of a car in brake-and-release sequence. It is important to model the transient heating and the following convective cooling to determine the minimum interval between a series of similar brake engagements. If the cooling is insufficient the disc overheats and results in brake failure. The model uses the Heat ...

### Turbulent Flow Over a Backward Facing Step

The backward facing step is an interesting case for studying the performance and solution strategy of a turbulence model. In this case, the flow is subjected to a sudden increase of cross-sectional area, resulting in a separation of flow starting at the point of expansion. Spatial variations in the velocity field cause production of turbulence outside the wall region and its interaction with ...

### Non-Isothermal MEMS Heat Exchanger

The example concerns a stainless-steel MEMS heat exchanger, which you can find in lab-on-a-chip devices in biotechnology and in microreactors such as for micro fuel cells. This model examines the heat exchanger in 3D, and it involves heat transfer through both convection and conduction. The model solves for the temperature and heat flux in the device and investigate the convective term’s ...

### Turbulent Flow Through a Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Cross Section

This model studies a part of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger where hot water enters from above. The cooling medium flows through the tubes that, in this model, impose a constant temperature at the walls. Furthermore, the tubes are assumed to be made of stainless steel and the heat flux is also modeled through them. The purpose of the model is to show the coupling between the k-omega turbulence ...

### Fluid Damper

Fluid dampers are used in military devices for shock isolation and in civil structures for suppressing earthquake-induced shaking and wind-induced vibrations, among many other applications. Fluid dampers work by dissipating the mechanical energy into heat. This model shows the phenomenon of viscous heating and consequent temperature increase in a fluid damper. Viscous heating is also important in ...

### The Magnus Effect

The Magnus effect explains the curl that soccer players can give the ball, resulting in the enjoyable goals that we can see in every World Cup™. This model looks at the Magnus effect in the laminar and turbulent flow regimes for transient and stationary flows. It also discusses the simulation results and relates them to experimental measurements on soccer balls found in the literature.

### Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of a Surface-Mounted Resistor

The drive for miniaturizing electronic devices has resulted in today’s extensive use of surface-mount electronic components. An important aspect in electronics design and the choice of materials is a product’s durability and lifetime. For surface-mount resistors and other components producing heat it is a well-known problem that temperature cycling can lead to cracks propagating through the ...

### Heat Transfer in a Surface-Mount Package for a Silicon Chip

All integrated circuits—especially high-speed devices—produce heat. In today’s dense electronic system layouts heat sources are many times placed close to heat-sensitive ICs. Designers of printed-circuit boards often need to consider the relative placement of heat-sensitive and heat-producing devices, so that the sensitive ones do not overheat. One type of heat-generating device is a ...

### Parameterized Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Geometry

Double-pipe heat exchangers, with their typical U-turn shape, are one of the simplest and cheapest type of heat exchangers used in the chemical process industry. This example studies the cooling of hot oil (130°C) by a cool oil (60°C) entering in counter-current. As the oils flow through the system, the material properties of both change with the varying temperature. The model uses the ...

### Hepatic Tumor Ablation

One method for removing cancerous tumors from healthy tissue is to heat the malignant tissue to a critical temperature that kills the cancer cells. This example accomplishes the localized heating by inserting a four-armed electric probe through which an electric current runs. Equations for the electric field for this case appear in the Electric Currents interface, and this example couples them to ...