# Application Gallery

The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, mechanical, fluid, and chemical disciplines. You can download ready-to-use tutorial models and demo apps with step-by-step instructions for how to create them yourself. The examples in the gallery serve as a great starting point for your own simulation work.
Use the Quick Search to find tutorials and apps relevant to your area of expertise. Log in or create a COMSOL Access account that is associated with a valid COMSOL license to download the MPH-files.

### Phase Change

This example demonstrates how to model a phase change and predict its impact on a heat transfer analysis. When a material changes phase, for instance from solid to liquid, energy is added to the solid. Instead of creating a temperature rise, the energy alters the material’s molecular structure. Equations for the latent heat of phase changes appear in many texts but their implementation is ...

### Two-Phase Flow in Column

The first model describes the simultaneous flow of two immiscible fluids in porous media - here air displaces water in a multi-step inlet pressure experiment. We solve for the pressure and the degree saturation for the air and water within a representative volume and so track saturation levels rather than estimating a discrete location for the air-water interface. A second example is also ...

### Biot Poroelasticity

The Poroelasticity interface couples Darcy's law and solid mechanics to assess deformation of porous media that results from fluid withdrawals. The model builds on top of the Terzaghi Compaction example. Results from Terzaghi compaction and Biot poroelasticity analyses are compared to each other and are a good match to published analyses.

### Darcy - Brinkman Example

This example model characterizes a transition in flow regimes: slow flow in porous media quickens to a perforation in a well casing and ultimately moves into and up the well. Darcy’s law describes flow velocities at a distance from the well. Closer to the perforation the Brinkman equations apply. Movement of fluid in the well is described by the Navier Stokes equations. This example starts ...

### Pore-Scale Flow

This non-conventional model of porous media flow utilizes Navier-Stokes equations in the interstices of a porous media. The model comes from the pore-scale flow experiments conducted by Arturo Keller, Maria Auset, and Sanya Sirivithayapakorn of the University of California, Santa Barbara. The geometry used in the model was produced by scanning electron microscope images. In this example, we ...

### Forchheimer Flow

This is a tutorial model of the coupling between flow of a fluid in an open channel and a porous block attached to one of the channel walls. The flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equation in the free region and a Forchheimer-corrected version of the Brinkman equations in the porous region.

### Buoyancy Flow with Darcy's Law—The Elder Problem

Density variations can initiate flow even in a still fluid. In earth systems, density variations can arise from naturally occurring salts, subsurface temperature changes, or migrating pollution. This buoyant or density-driven flow factors into fluid movement in salt-lake systems, saline-disposal basins, dense contaminant and leachate plumes, and geothermal reservoirs, to name just a few. This ...

### Free Convection in a Porous Medium

This example treats the modeling of sub-surface flow where free convection in porous media is analyzed. The results are compared with published literature in the field. The model couples the momentum balance to an energy balance through an equation, dependent on temperature, being directly typed into the source term for the momentum balance. This shows COMSOL Multiphysics' unique ...

### Failure of a Multilateral Well

Multilateral wells—those with multiple legs that branch off from a single conduit—can produce oil efficiently because the legs can tap multiple productive zones and navigate around impermeable ones. Unfortunately, drilling engineers must often mechanically stabilize multilateral wells with a liner or casing, which can cost millions of dollars. Leaving the wellbore uncased reduces construction ...

### Variably Saturated Flow and Transport—Sorbing Solute

In this example water ponded in a ring on the ground moves into a relatively dry soil column and carries a chemical with it. As it moves through the variably saturated soil column, the chemical attaches to solid particles, slowing the solute transport relative to the water. Additionally the chemical concentrations decay from biodegradation in both the liquid and the solid phase.

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