Internal Short Circuit of a Lithium-Ion Battery

Application ID: 34891


During an internal short circuit of a battery, the two electrode materials are internally and electronically interconnected, giving rise to high local current densities. Internal short circuits may occur in a lithium-ion battery due to, for instance, lithium dendrite formation or a compressive shock. A prolonged internal short circuit results in self discharge in combination with a local temperature increase. The latter effect is important because the electrolyte may start to decompose by exothermic reactions if the temperature reaches above a certain threshold, causing thermal runaway with potential health and safety hazards.

This tutorial model investigates the local temperature rise due to the occurrence of a penetrating metallic filament in the separator between the two porous electrode materials. The physics are set up using the Lithium-Ion Battery interface coupled to the Heat Transfer interface. The battery chemistry consists of a graphite negative electrode and an NMC positive electrode with an LiPF6 electrolyte.

This model example illustrates applications of this type that would nominally be built using the following products: