Simulation of Heat Transfer during Artificial Ground Freezing Combined with Groundwater FlowR. Hu , Q. Liu ,
 School of Earth Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China
Based on the heat transfer and seepage theory in porous media, a 2D cross section of a horizontal AGF project is selected and a numerical model is set up, which is based on full coupling of temperature and flow fields by combining physical interfaces of Darcy's Law and Heat Transfer in Porous Media. The simulation results show that freezing wall appears in an asymmetrical shape as the horizontal groundwater flow is normal to the axial of the tunnel. Along the groundwater flow direction, freezing wall forms slowly. The closure time of the freezing wall increases at the middle of the both up and downstream sides. The average thickness of the freezing wall on the upstream side is mostly affected by the groundwater flow velocity.