The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics® tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, structural, acoustics, fluid, heat, and chemical disciplines. You can use these examples as a starting point for your own simulation work by downloading the tutorial model or demo app file and its accompanying instructions.

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Freeze-Drying

Freeze-drying, or lyophilization, is a process for drying heat-sensitive substances such as foods, blood plasma, and antibiotics. The wet substance is frozen and then, through sublimation, ice (or some other frozen solvent) is removed in the presence of a high vacuum. This example models the process of ice sublimation in a vial under vacuum-chamber conditions, a test case for many freeze-drying ...

Cross-Flow Heat Exchanger

This model solves the fluid flow and heat transfer in a micro heat exchanger made of stainless steel. These types of heat exchangers are found in lab-on-chip devices in biotechnology and micro reactors, for example for micro fuel cells. The model takes heat transferred through both convection and conduction into account. A square cross-section is used for the fluid channels instead of ...

Thermal Modeling of a Microchannel Heat Sink

Thermal management has become a critical aspect of today’s electronic systems, which often include many high-performance circuits that dissipate large amounts of heat. Many of these components require efficient cooling to prevent overheating. Some of these components, such as processors, require a heat sink with cooling fins that are exposed to forced air from a fan. This discussion develops the ...

Flash Method

The flash method is widely used for measuring the thermal conductivity of a thin sample material that is about the size of a coin. The sample material is submitted to a laser pulse on one of its faces. In turn, the opposite face is heated up by around 1 K. As the pulse is uniform and well defined, you can measure the temperature variation on the other side. Thereby, you can measure the thermal ...

Fluid-Structure Interaction in Aluminum Extrusion

In massive forming processes like rolling or extrusion, metal alloys are deformed in a hot solid state with material flowing under ideally plastic conditions. Such processes can be simulated effectively using computational fluid dynamics, where the material is considered as a fluid with a very high viscosity that depends on velocity and temperature. Internal friction of the moving material acts ...

Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of a Surface-Mounted Resistor

The drive for miniaturizing electronic devices has resulted in today’s extensive use of surface-mount electronic components. An important aspect in electronics design and the choice of materials is a product’s durability and lifetime. For surface-mount resistors and other components producing heat it is a well-known problem that temperature cycling can lead to cracks propagating through the ...

Thermoelectric Leg

A thermoelectric leg is a fundamental component of a thermoelectric cooler (or heater). For example, a thermocouple is a thermoelectric module typically made of two thermoelectric legs: one made of p-type and of one n-type semiconductor material which are connected in series electrically and in parallel thermally.

Heat and Moisture Transport in a Semi-Infinite Wall

The model is defined as a benchmark case in norm 15026:2007 annex A. The purpose of the model is to calculate the temperature and moisture profiles at different times after a change in the external conditions (temperature and relative humidity) inside a wall material (kind of concrete). It shows how to use the Heat and Moisture Transport interface.

Radiative Heat Transfer in a Utility Boiler

This model uses the discrete-ordinates method (DOM) to analyze the radiative heat transfer in a utility boiler with internal obstacles. DOM is one of the most useful radiation models for prediction of radiative heat fluxes on the furnace walls of a combustion chamber. With this model, the behavior of the temperature and heat flux within the furnace and on the heat surfaces can be easily obtained ...

Radiation in a Cavity

This model shows how to build and solve a radiative heat transfer problem using the Heat Transfer interface. In particular, this 2D model illustrates the use of the surface-to-surface radiation feature. In this model, three surfaces form a cavity. Heat flux is set at two outer boundaries, while temperature is set on the third. The model's simple geometry, allows a comparison of results ...