Inverted boundary layer mesh in ALE + contact pair

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Dear all,

I had one numerical issue of inverted boundary layer element, as shown in the attached images. Two spheres are pressed to control the width of fluid channel in between. the offset penalty method is used to avoid topological change of fluid channel. Eight boundardy elements are used for both spheres. The red colors denotes the mesh quality. It shows that the first boundadry layer element got inverted (the seperated red one in image). Why does the boundadry layer element get this error? How to imporve the stability of mesh? Any suggestion on this problem?

Thanks,

Chao



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