The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics® tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, structural, acoustics, fluid, heat, and chemical disciplines. You can use these examples as a starting point for your own simulation work by downloading the tutorial model or demo app file and its accompanying instructions.

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Electrodeposition Modulex

Aluminum Anodization

When anodizing aluminum, the surface is electrochemically altered to form an abrasive and corrosion-resistive Al2O3 film. The electrode kinetics during the process are only marginally affected as the oxide layer grows, so a stationary analysis of the current distribution is sufficient to ... Read More

Pulse Reverse Plating

This tutorial explores how pulse reverse plating can be used as an additive-free alternative to attenuate small protrusions during copper metal deposition. By matching the process parameters, including the length of the forward and reverse pulses (duty cycles), a bright mirror-like metal ... Read More

Electrocoating of a Car Door

This example models electrocoating of paint onto a car door in a time-dependent simulation. The deposited paint is highly resistive which results in lowered local deposition rates for coated areas. A primary current distribution in combination with a film resistance model is used to ... Read More

Electrode Growth Next to an Insulator

This example shows how to model secondary current distribution and electrode growth with a moving geometry. To avoid numerical instabilities, a seed layer is introduced in the initial geometry to obtain a right angle at the edge between the growing electrode and the insulator. Read More

Electrodeposition of a Microconnector Bump with Deforming Geometry in 3D

This model simulates the shape evolution of a microconnector bump over time as copper deposits on an electrode surface. Transport of cupric ions in the electrolyte occurs by convection and diffusion. The electrode kinetics are described by a concentration dependent Butler-Volmer ... Read More

Superfilling Electrodeposition

This example illustrates the concept of superfilling in electrodeposition. The deposition rate is accelerated in concave areas of the surface, where the concentration of a surface catalyst is increased due to the area contraction of the moving boundary. Read More

Rotating Cylinder Hull Cell

Rotating cylinder Hull cells are an important experimental tool in electroplating and electrodeposition and are used for the measurement of nonuniform current distribution, mass transport, and throwing power of plating baths. The model reproduces the results for a commercially available ... Read More

Electrodeposition of a Microconnector Bump in 2D

This model demonstrates the impact of convection and diffusion on the transport-limited electrodeposition of a copper microconnector bump (metal post). Microconnector bumps are used in various types of electronic applications for interconnecting components, for instance liquid crystal ... Read More

Secondary Current Distribution in a Zinc Electrowinning Cell

This is a model of the secondary current distribution in a zinc electrowinning cell. The model investigates the impact on the current distribution when changing the electrode alignment in a parametric study. The geometry is in 2D. Read More

Copper Electroless Deposition

Electroless deposition or plating is a non-galvanic plating method that does not require any external electrical power. This technique is typically used for electroless plating of nickel, silver, gold and copper. In electroless deposition, partial oxidation and reduction reactions ... Read More