The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics® tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, structural, acoustics, fluid, heat, and chemical disciplines. You can use these examples as a starting point for your own simulation work by downloading the tutorial model or demo app file and its accompanying instructions.

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3D ICP Reactor, Argon Chemistry

3D plasma modeling is possible to do in COMSOL. A square coil is placed on top of a dielectric window and is electrically excited at 13.56MHz. A plasma is formed in the chamber beneath the dielectric window, which contains Argon gas at low pressure (20 mtorr). The gas flows into the process chamber from two 2 inch ports and the gas is extracted through a single 4 inch port. The plasma is ...

Drift Diffusion Tutorial

The Drift Diffusion interface solves a pair of reaction/advection/diffusion equations, one for the electron density and the other for the mean electron energy. This tutorial example computes the electron number density and mean electron energy in a drift tube. Electrons are released due to thermionic emission on the left boundary with an assumed mean electron energy. The electrons are then ...

Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) torch

This model investigates the electrical and thermal characteristics of an inductively coupled plasma torch at atmospheric pressure. The discharge is assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium.

Applying a Current-Voltage Switch to Models

This example exemplifies how to model the switching between current and voltage excitations in *Terminal* boundary conditions. A more detailed description of the phenomenon and the modeling process can be seen in the blog post "[Control Current and Voltage Sources with the AC/DC Module](".

Ion Energy Distribution Function

One of the most useful quantites of interest after solving a self-consistent plasma model is the ion energy distribution function (IEDF). The magnitude and shape of the IEDF depends on many of the discharge parameters; pressure, plasma potential, sheath width etc. At very low pressures the plasma sheath is said to be collisionless, meaning that the ion energy is not retarded by collisions with ...

GEC CCP Reactor, Argon Chemistry, 1D

The NIST GEC CCP reactor provides a platform for studying capacitively coupled plasmas. Even the simplest plasma models are quite involved so a 1D example helps in understanding the physics without excessive CPU time. The problem has no steady-state solution, although a periodic steady-state solution is reached after a suitable number of RF cycles (usually >1000).

Capacitively Coupled Plasma

The NIST Gaseous Electronics Conference has provided a platform for studying Capacitively Coupled Plasma (CCP) reactors, which is what this application is based upon. The operating principle of a capacitively coupled plasma is different when compared to the inductive case. In a CCP reactor, the plasma is sustained by applying a sinusoidal electrostatic potential across a small gap filled with a ...

Boltzmann DC Glow Discharge

This application models a DC glow discharge. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and electron transport properties are computed with the *Boltzmann Equation, Two-Term Approximation* interface. Since input parameters for the *Boltzmann Equation, Two-Term Approximation* interface, like the ionization degree of the plasma, are not known *a priori*, an iterative process is performed. A ...

Microwave Microplasma

Plasmas sustained in microscale discharge gaps are able to operate at high pressure (1 atm) with high electron number density (10{:sup}20{:/sup} m{:sup}-3{:/sup}) and power density (10{:sup}9{:/sup} W.m{:sup}-3{:/sup}) while maintaining a relatively cool heavy-particle temperature. This model simulates an atmospheric pressure argon plasma sustained by a time-varying electric excitation in the ...

Electrodeless Lamp

This model simulates an electrodeless lamp with argon/mercury chemistry. The low excitation threshold for mercury atoms means that even though the mercury is present in small concentrations, its behavior dominates. There is strong UV emission from the plasma at 185 nm and 253 nm. The UV emission can stimulate phosphors coated on the surface of the bulb. From an electrical point of view, the lamp ...