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A 100-Fold Improvement in Lithography Resolution Realized with a 150-Year-Old “Perfect Imaging” System
Juan Carlos Miñano and Dejan Grabovičkić
Cedint Polytechnic University of Madrid
The idea of "perfect imaging", that is a resolution less than the wavelength of light producing the image, was first proposed in the mid-19th century by famed Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. For the next 150 years, it was widely believed that such was impossible due to the fact that light diffracts around points that are the same size or smaller in wavelength. Then, in 2009, Ulf ...
Jean-Louis Gelet and Antoine Gerlaud
Large electrical systems carrying high currents could pose a danger if any of their components, such as fuses and bus bars, fail. In order to increase safety and improve manufacturing, it is necessary to understand the failure mechanisms of those components. One of those components, a bus bar, is made up of a single piece of conducting metal that replaces individual, thick cables when conducting ...
Aulis Tuominen and Mika Maaspuro
University of Turku
Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Hella Lighting Finland Oy
Helvar Oy Ab
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer many benefits over incandescent lighting, such as long life spans and high luminous efficiency, and they are environmentally friendly. One of the drawbacks, however, is that LEDs need to operate at the lowest possible temperatures and this must be carefully regulated. Researchers at Business and Innovation Development Technology at the University of Turku in ...
Tommi Paananen, David Geibel, Bill Teising, Mårten Almkvist, Jon Brasher, Josh Elder, Bob Elick and Chris Whitten
Consumers of power rely on fairly stable voltages. Transformers contain tap changers which vary the ratio of secondary to primary turns by switching the point at which either the input or output circuits are connected. Changing this ratio enables stepped voltage regulation of the output. As the world moves toward the modernized smart grid, the tap changer’s design must be altered to make it ...
Sharp Laboratories of Europe, UK
There are several kinds of technology that designers at Sharp Laboratories of Europe work to create. From LED lighting, displays, and microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology, to complex energy systems used in various devices, Sharp needed a new approach to finding the best designs. COMSOL Multiphysics and its add-on products provided the versatility to augment Sharp's research and development in ...
F. De Vita, S. Di Marco, F. Costa and P. Turchi
Stealth airplanes and ships avoid radar detection by optimizing the shape of surfaces to reflect away from the radar source or absorb its energy. Yet, if a ship or aircraft’s antenna for communication purposes is to operate properly, it cannot be completely covered up. This makes it one of the remaining components with a large radar cross section and can essentially destroy the overall system’s ...
S.P. Yushanov, J.S. Crompton, and K.C. Koppenhoeffer
As the world becomes more digital, there is growing demand for advanced wireless systems. Increasingly high data rate transmission systems mean that components like microwave filters must fit into smaller and smaller spaces, and multiple filters need to be integrated into compact designs. Engineers are challenged to meet a filter's specific passband frequencies and quality requirements within ...
Tessera Technologies, CA, USA
Removing heat from electronic devices is a necessity that up until now was achieved by rotary fans. Tessera, a company that delivers innovative miniaturization technologies and products for next-generation electronic devices, developed a replacement for rotary fans that can satisfy demanding space and noise constraints. They designed a silent air cooling system that uses an electric field to ...
Terres Réfractaires du Boulonnais (TRB), France
To contain splashes and provide protection at plants where metal is fabricated, blast furnace runners need a roof made of cast iron and concrete. Terres Réfractaires Du Boulonnais, a manufacturing company in France, has hundreds of blast furnaces with a short functional lifespan, so engineers need to design roof runners as economically as possible while maintaining overall safety. During the ...
National Physical Laboratory
Thermometers have widespread application and like any measurement device, they must be calibrated. Many do this with the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90), which is a platinum resistance thermometer that calibrates using a fixed point cell, which is a container with a well running through its center for insertion of the thermometer. The container has a material of 99.9999% purity. ...